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Higher Education in the 21st Century: Changes and Challenges Ahead

What are the major changes and transformations affecting higher education worldwide? And what are the challenges for higher education systems and institutions in the 21st century? Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions is a major reference work providing comprehensive answers to these and other questions. Over the past years, many researchers from around the world have contributed to this impressive effort with 468 entries. The print edition, currently scheduled for release in the summer of 2020, is planned to have 5 volumes spanning over 2600 pages. The encyclopedia highlights an expansion of higher education globally, growth of mass higher education and international networks of universities, students and academics.

Chapters cover a broad range of theoretical, conceptual and empirical topics such as academic capitalism, politics, power and ideology in higher education, interest groups and lobbies, careers, comparative dimension, regional roles, innovation and technology transfer, commercialization and the social contract of science. Several members and collaborators of the ECPR Standing Group Knowledge Politics and Policies are among the editors and contributors.

Market mechanisms & globalization

Theoretical and conceptual issues addressed in the encyclopedia include chapters by Åse Gornitzka and Peter Maassen on higher education in knowledge systems (Gornitzka & Maassen 2017), Jens Jungblut and Peter Maassen on types of higher education systems (Jungblut & Maassen 2017) and Bjørn Stensaker on policy implementation (Stensaker 2018). One of the major transformations in higher education is related to introduction of market mechanisms. Different facets of this development are addressed in the contributions by Ivar Bleiklie on neoliberalism (Bleiklie 2018), Teresa Carvalho on New Public Management and the academic profession (Carvalho 2018), Mari Elken on marketing (Elken 2019) and Maarja Berkens on information issues in higher education markets (Beerkens 2018).

Another significant transformation of higher education is intensification of globalization and international links. Some important aspects of these developments are covered in chapters by Susan L. Robertson on policy learning and borrowing (Robertson 2018), Christina Sin on the Bologna Process (Sin 2018), Amélia Veiga on multi-level governance (Veiga 2018b) and Gaële Goastellec on internationallization of higher education research and careers in Europe (Goastellec 2018a). The book also covers such recent challenges as refugees’ access to higher education (Goastellec 2018b).

Disciplinary, institutional & national differences

Many chapters focusses on developments in teaching and learning. These are covered in contributions by Manja Klemenčič on the increase in student enrolments (Klemenčič 2019), Cristina Sin and Diana Soares on disciplinary differences in university teaching (Sin & Soares 2018), Teresa Carvalho and Sara Diogo on non-tenured teachers (Carvalho & Diogo 2018) and Marco Seeber on non-university higher education (Seeber 2016).

Many chapters in this book are dedicated to country-specific case studies revealing how global and regional developments shape national policies and institutions in specific historical and cultural contexts. Diversity of national contexts and developments can be seen, for example, in contributions on higher education systems and institutions in Switzerland (Goastellec 2017), Luxembourg (Harmsen & Powell 2018), Latvia (Ulnicane 2017), Estonia (Elken 2018), Portugal (Veiga 2018a) and Qatar (Christ & Powell 2017).

Hopefully this encyclopedia will be a useful resource for higher education researchers and practitioners and will facilitate much needed conversations about the roles of higher education in the 21st century and the ways to fulfil them.

References:

Beerkens M. (2018) Information Issues, Higher Education Markets. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Bleiklie I. (2018) New Public Management or Neoliberalism, Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Carvalho T. (2018) New Public Management and the Academic Profession. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Carvalho T., Diogo S. (2018) Non-tenured Teachers, Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Crist J.T., Powell J.J.W. (2017) Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Qatar. In: Shin J., Teixeira P. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Elken M. (2018) Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Estonia. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Elken M. (2019) Marketing in Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Goastellec G. (2018a) Internationalization of Higher Education Research and Careers, Europe. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Goastellec G. (2018b) Refugees’ Access to Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Goastellec G. (2017) Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Switzerland. In: Shin J., Teixeira P. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Gornitzka Å., Maassen P. (2017) Higher Education in Knowledge Systems. In: Shin J., Teixeira P. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Harmsen R., Powell J.J.W. (2018) Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Luxembourg. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Jungblut J., Maassen P. (2017) Higher Education Systems, Types of. In: Shin J., Teixeira P. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Klemenčič M. (2019) Students and Higher Education Expansion. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Robertson S.L. (2018) Policy Learning and Borrowing in Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Seeber M. (2016) Non-university Higher Education. In: Shin J., Teixeira P. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Sin C. (2018) Intergovernmental Policies in Higher Education, Bologna. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Sin C., Soares D. (2018) Disciplinary Differences in University Teaching. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Stensaker B. (2018) Policy Implementation in Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Ulnicane I. (2017) Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Latvia. In: Shin J., Teixeira P. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Veiga A. (2018a) Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Portugal. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

Veiga A. (2018b) Multi-Level Governance, Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht

 

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